Published by:
Deanship of Scientific Research
Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

ISSN (Print Version): 1684-0615

ISSN (Online Version): 2616-2814

Volume 8, Issue No 1, 2001

lbn khaldun’s Thought in Modern Historical Method

Pages: 1 - 35

lbn khaldun’s thought which was characterized by innovation in many of its aspects, has received a lot of attention by many researchers, studies, related to the various topics tackled in “Almuqaddama”. Historians, however, did not pay Ibn khalduns historical thought enough attention so as to render prominent its important status in khaldunian thought in general, and to reveal the fact that lbn Khaldun was more of a historian than anything else; for Ibn Khaldun is a historian whose deep thought and wide knowledge of generate hi- story helped establish the subject of ‘the philosophy of history’. The accuracy that he demanded in historiography resulted in the establishment of ‘Al-Omran’ now called sociology. Thus, Al-Omran is no more than :1 criterion by which the truthfulness of historical data can be checked bv the historian. Therefore, historians ought to pay Al-muqaddama as much attention as that paid by other scholars, for Al-muqaddama has dealt with many of the mistakes and lies in historiography and then can help researchers deduce a distinguished historical method. The present study attempts to carry out this deduction process. It starts with a review of the khaldunian classification of the historians in terms of their accuracy, honesty and methods, and the reasons that incited Ibn Khaldun to study history and to detect the causes of its falsehood. Next, the study presents the historical methods that have been deduced from Al-muqaddama and then compares it with the modern historical method and its steps which start with the characteristics of the historian and goes through the stages that he has to follow, and these include: criticism process, the verification of historical facts, the organization of these facts, and providing reasons and explanation......

Building of Commercial Ships in the Middle Age. A Comparative Study Between the Ships that were Built in the Mediterranean and those Built in the Indian Ocean

Pages: 36 - 49

What’s exciting in the subject of building of commercial ships in the Middle Age is that big difference between the ships that were built in the Mediterranean and those built in the Indian Ocean. - While wooden blocks were linked in the first by metal nails, they were linked in the second by cords nd ropes. This phenomenon has attracted the attention ancient geographers and historians and modern scholar. A lot has been presented to account for it. These opinions diversed between mythical and improvised interpretation to the analysis depending on observation. Some of the opinions thought of the phenomena on purely economical basis, whereas others just presented descriptions, neglecting the reasons behind it. The present research paper aims at raising the topic through an exposition and analysis of those opinions forwarded by famous geographers like Masoudi, ldrisi, Kizwini, lbn Jupair, Maren polo and lbn Batota. lt also discusses some of the interpretations presents by modern scholars to account for this phenomenon.....

The Power of Administration to Purchase on the Account of the Contracting Party (Contractor) Comparative Study

Pages: 50 - 79

The power of administration to purchase on the account of the contracting party (Contractor) is defined as a legal means under which the administration shall be able to subrogate the contractor to implement the contract on his account and his own expense. It is a compulsory medium that enables the contracting administration to substitute the defaulting contractor to secure the implementation of the contract The contracting administration might also assume by itself the responsibility for implementing the contract or it might entrust such task to another contractor The purchase on the contractor’s account aims at two objectives: to secure the supplies which the contractor has refrained to supply or defaulted in their supply, and to impose a penlty on the defaulting contractor to obligate him, along with other contractors, to respect and adhere to their contractual obligation The purchase on the contractor‘s account is distinguished by a number of characteristics: it is a predetermined procedure in the contract or the law, having a punishable nature and an administrative nature Willi defined causes, and is a temporary one. The contracting administration resorts to purchase on the c0ntract’s account and at his expense if the contractor fails to execute or default in executing the contract or if he furnishes supplies that are inconsistent with the specifications agreed upon in the contract......

Preparing an Observation Card to Evaluate the Kindergartens Teacher Performance

Pages: 80 - 108

This study aimed at preparing an observation card to evaluate the Kindergartens teacher performance. This card was derived from the following sources: - The modern literature of Kindergarten, - The model of Kindergarten in Jordan, it’s curriculum and Philosophy. - The competencies of teachers in the Kindergarten. Necessary procedures were taken in which to calculate its validity and reliability. The final copy of this card consists of 63 items, classified in the following fields: - Cognitive Competencies. - Performance Competencies. - Physical and Emotional Competencies. — Competencies related to Kindergarten activities. - Methods and Strategies of teaching. - Procedures and Strategies of Teaching Thinking and Creative Thinking. - Relations between Teachers and Parents. - Practical Approaches. - Competencies of Evaluation. The card can be used by teachers themselves as self- evaluation, Kindergarten, principals, supervisors and by students’ teachers. The study recommends the following: Producing Integrated tools to develop all other aspects of Kindergarten building and other facilities. Preparing studies on kindergartens teacher competencies. Setting integrated standards for evaluating the Kindergarten. Training programs for teachers in the field of observation skills, analyzing, and self- evaluation......

Arabic Verbs and Their Theta-Gride

Pages: 1 - 65

This paper discuss the manner in which the traditional Arab grammarians classified the Arabic verbs ;they basically, referred to the theory of transitivity for their purpose .as this theory was unable to account for the grammatically and the ungrammatically of various Arabic sentence , we opt for theta- theory of Chomsky (1991) to solve the problem faced by the traditional analysis. With the help of theta- theory , we put modern standard Arabic verbs in specific sub ground on the basis of their semantic , all intransitive verbs require one essential argument. However , the nature of that essential argument differs from verb to verb depending on some semantic factors . for instance , we find that some intransitive verbs may take an agent, others a theme or an experiencer as their argument. Transitive verbs that need two essential argument can also be divided in sub groups on the basis of the types of theta-theory that their argument will have. We find that ditransitive verbs may require three essential argument in a well- formed sentence . we have realized that Arabic like languages , has some unique verbs that take a CP as one of their argument . the nature of these verbs and their theta- roles have also been discussed in detail in the course of our analysis. as this theory regards NP,IP,PP & CP essential argument, all the problems of classification verbs are solved ......

Melville the poet A study in the Civil War Poetry of Herman Melville

Pages: 66 - 87

The American Civil War(1861-1865) marked the initiation of Herman Melville one of Americas Most potent and original novelists into the realm of poetry . Melville’s new creative phase was firmly established with the publication of his anthology Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the war – the main focus of this study which set the tone for Melville’s subsequent career as a poet . This essay attempts in particular to explore the following : 1. In most of poems under analysis , Melville seems to have lived the turmoil of the civil war, and artistically transformed it . his power to generalized is based on particular knowledge and fidelity to historical fact and detail . 2. The civil war depend Melville’s sense of the widening gulf between history and the ideal . it seems to him that human idealism when unchecked ,inevitably leads to disaster. 3. Melville reactions towards the war concealed themselves within a rigid framework of an emphatically paradoxical ,dramatic , and tragic vision . 4. Melville tragic vision reveals itself not through antimonial imagery patterns, but also through stylistic and thematic contrasts which are further intensified by constant shifts in tone and diction . what merits mentioning is the fact that such shifts – which form Melville’s most characteristics verbal mannerism – are most effective when they create ironic effects . 5. It is in the juxtaposition of contradictory voices and points of view and in the variety of dramatic and ironic undertones in battel –pieces that Melville depart from the overriding subjectivity of nineteenth century poetry. Accordingly, he anticipates sensibilities which are to figure later in a great deal of twentieth century poetry ......

The Tragic Element in Edward II and Sir Thomas More

Pages: 88 - 117

This is a study on Christopher Marlowe’s Edward II (1591 or 1592) and Sir Thomas More ( a play ascribed to Antony Munday, Henty Chettle, Thomas Heywood and William Shakespeare, 1600 or 16010). This study proposes to analyse these plays as both chronicle drama and ,tragedies. Earlier literary research tended to see these plays as mainly propaganda and didactic histories. Of course, this leaves out the aura of tragedy, which permeates these plays. In intending to attend to the plays‘ tragic elements, this study offers a balanced analysis of these plays. The choice of Edward II as an early play and Sir Thomas More as a late one is deliberate because it reveals that the concerns of the English chronicle play are the same.....

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