Published by:
Deanship of Scientific Research
Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

ISSN (Print Version): 1684-0615

ISSN (Online Version): 2616-2814





Volume 6, Issue No 2, 1999


Effect of Preanalytical Techniques and Variables on Plasma Ammonia Estimation



Pages: 11 - 22


Ammonia concentration may increase or decrease due to the mishandling of blood specimens. Among the factors that affect ammonia concentration, blood collection, type of anticoagulant, centrifugation forces, atmosphere and storage temperature. We focused on the effect of centrifugation forces, type of anti coagulant and the complete filling of the blood collection tube. Ten male healthy volunteers, each with replicate specimens were used in this study. Results show that the use of non hemolysed , non clotted specimen and prompt centrifugation (1500 X g; 15 minutes) apparently were important in avoiding such increase in Ammonia concentration. It was also found that EDTA - Plasma is preferred over the other anticoagulated specimen for ammonia determination. Complete filling of the specimen tube was found to have no significant effect on ammonia concentration. We concluded that the procedure used for collection and storage of specimens for ammonia determination should be standardized and strictly observed.....

Wireless Computer Communication Using Laser Beam



Pages: 33 - 44


Wireless Communications starts to prove its self as an alternative for computer networking that save cabling cost and provide dynamic topology. This paper presents a prototype for a wireless data communication system using laser beam. The hardware and communication protocol are also discussed. The protocol allows the forwarding of packets to other computers, which allows the creation of computer wireless network rather than a communication between two points. The performance results obtained showed that, the communication speed depends on the quality of the photo cells used. By using a normal quality Photo cells, a communication speed performance about 1 KB(Kilo byte)/sec can be obtained......

Protective Effects of Antioxidants Against Rheumatoid Arthritis-Induces Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Depletion



Pages: 45 - 61


The effects of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antioxidant therapy for 10 days with vitamin E, Vitamin C and vitamin A on serum lipid peroxidation (MDA content), glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione reductase (GSR) activity, both total and selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSI-I-Px) activities were tested in 18 rheumatic patients. RA patients had increased MDA content, and index of lipid peroxidation, depleted GSH levels, elevated GST activity and inhibited GSR and GSI-I-GSI-I-Px activities, as compared to 20 healthy subjects. Supplementation with vitamin E decreased MDA content, elevated GSI-I levels, GSR and GSI-I-Px activities after 5 days of therapy. Vitamin C supplementation did so only after 10 days of therapy, while treatment with vitamin A showed no significant changes in these parameters compared to pretreatment levels The results suggest that antioxidant therapy may afford some protection against oxidative stress associated with RA.....

The Role of Pharmacist in Patient Counseling



Pages: 61 - 76


The role of pharmacist in patient counseling is well defined. However, the extent of provision of this service is the one which varies within and between practicing sites. The service is demanded by patients, government, pharmacy profession and in a few countries legislation was released in response to this demand. Unfortunately many of the advancement in pharmacy practice in the hospitals have not been transferred to the community pharmacies. Patient counseling is one of several pharmaceutical services provided in hospitals and the main function for the pharmacists in community pharmacy. Ambulatory pharmacy is the new setting under which patient counseling is offered to all patients in the hospital. The role of the pharmacist in patient counseling is confronted with several legal, cognitive, attitudinal and situational barriers. The barriers are well recognized and considered as real problems with logical explanations and relatively simple solutions. We need to maintain our mission initially by solving the pharmacist-related barriers. If we managed to create the competent pharmacist who cares for the patients, the rest of the barriers will be easier to tackle. This paper will address the subject in more detail in the full text.....

Clinical Pharmacy Practice in Egypt why it took so long to apply it?



Pages: 77 - 84


Pharmacy practice has undergone dramatic changes in the last 30 years. The pharmacist’s responsibilities have moved from supplying medication in bulk towards stocks and extemporaneously compounding preparation to an important integrated member of the patient care team. Today, hospital pharmacists are vital players on the health care team acting as therapeutic experts, during information specialists, nutritional service members, and pharmacokinetic consultants. Guidelines to pharmacy college faculty in assessing and revising their curriculums and to design a continuing pharmaceutical education program was established by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). The two major outcomes of these two guidelines are professional practice-based outcomes and general ability-based outcomes. The University of Tanta, College of Pharmacy had developed new curriculum for its graduate pharmacy students to face the challenge of modern pharmacy practice. The ACCP guidelines were taken into account for developing this new curriculum and in designing course contents for the pharmacist to accept responsibility for the overall effects of the therapeutic process. However, some obstacles have raised on the surface when it comes to actually applying the principle of pharmaceutical care. These problems include: I) inadequate practicing experience; II) misunderstanding of the role of pharmaceutical services by the medical staff; III) the inherited lack of coordination between pharmacists and the rest of health team; IV) absence of in-service programs to the nursing staff by practicing ward pharmacists; V) lack of applied visible or sensible valuable pharmaceutical services; VI) inadequate life-long learning 86 practice; VII) minimal effort is exerted in the promotion of public awareness regarding public health and disease. However, local measures are currently undertaken to correct these problems along with the implementation of the Pharm. D. program......

Clinical Pharmacy: The Future Necessities of The Profession



Pages: 111 - 119


Clinical pharmacy is a discipline concerned with the application of pharmaceutical expertise to help maximize drug efficacy and minimize drug toxicity in individual patients. This can only be achieved when the pharmacists function as integral members to the health care team. A basic objective of clinical pharmacy services is to provide the right drug to the right patient at the right time. To meet this objective, two components of clinical pharmacy practice is mandatory. The first component is the overall management of medicines on the ward or at any part of the hospital dealing with drugs through advice on safe handling and formulary management. The second one is the contribution to the care of the individual patient through the provision of drug information and assisting in problem solving. Since one of the pharmacist’s responsibilities in clinical practice is to attend and participate in patient’s care rounds, the lack of clinical orientation will be an obstacle to their professional success. A clinical practice requires that a major portion of the pharmacist’s time be devoted to clinical activities. Obviously, there are many significant difficulties that hinder the implementation of a successful clinical pharmacy service. However, one can overcome these difficulties by the proper clinical pharmacy training.....

IFTS: Image Format Transformation System



Pages: 121 - 136


This research present IFTS as a software system that tackles one of the most needed functions in computer graphics applications and image processing. It handles the conversion between the most usable BitMaped based image formats: BMB, WPG, TGA, and IFF&LBM. It provides the display functions for any type of image starting from monochrome to True Color image through a friendly easy-to-use interface......

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