Published by:
Deanship of Scientific Research
Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

ISSN (Print Version): 1684-0615

ISSN (Online Version): 2616-2814





Volume 8, Issue No 2, 2001


The Role of Responsibility in Protecting the Environment from Pollution In the Shade of Scientific and Technical Progress



Pages: 1 - 69


Environment is one of the most important and hotly debated issues these days due to its direct relation with human. The reason behind this research is the lack of the basic general principles of responsibility in facing the problems of pollution. This is because it was based upon the conventional responsibility (fault, prejudice and causative relationship. Thus enemies of the environment, including individuals and establishments, will escape the fine imposed under the civil law, since they are not proven guilty, and therefore will continue to cause damage to the environment in the absence of the necessary law. Therefore, the writer has suggested the importance of a new legislation to comply with the requirement of civil responsibility toward the protection of the environment. This could be done through the objective responsibility which is based upon the assumption to be proven wrong when causing environmental damage , without having to be proven right. In practical terms, this method has actually been proven right due to man‘s scientific and technical progress, which puts him in a certain position that enables him to escape responsibility when this is done in the traditional way, (provided that this follows the traditional method). Another suggestion is to reduce, to the lowest possible level, the means that allow people to evade responsibility, especially what is called the unexpected events which, if placed in the prevailing frame, would give a legal way out of responsibility. The writer has also planned a new relationship between the civil responsibility and other responsibilities. He has demanded that the legislators should activate the environmental laws and increase environment awareness......

Marketing Tourism Services and the suggested ways to be developed from the Guests Point of View. Analytical Study to Main Hot Springs



Pages: 70 - 114


The objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of marketing in the tourism sector and its role in the promotion of tourism locations, especially in the Main Hot Springs (Sample research). The Marketing strategy in the tourism service represents the only activity for the promotion of this sector in different countries of the world. This study aims at evaluating the services offered in the resort from the point of view of guests, in addition to finding a link between marketing mix and market goals. A questionnaire was distributed to732 guests, and a number of statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data like analysis of variance and scale measurements. It was clear from the obtained results that therapy and self-enjoyment were the two must important factors from the guests view, with an average of 58.27. A number of guests complained about prices, with an average of 66......

Arab and Spread of Arabic Language during Islamic Age at Eastern Africa



Pages: 115 - 153


Eastern Africa is defined as the area that surrounds Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Madagascar. This paper discusses the early contacts the Arabs made with Eastern Africa. Before the birth of Christ, and for commercial reasons, such contacts led to the fusion of some Arabs with Africans who borrowed from their culture, eventually leading to the spread of Islam. The Islamic religion spread in the 7th century AD due to Arab contacts on the African Eastern Coast where they established a series of commercial centers. Due to these activities, Arabic spread among Africans, as it became the language of business in that period. Another factor that led to the same result is the Arab migration to this area in the age of the four orthodox caliphs and the Umayyad and Abbasid periods. Due to these migrations, a new generation appeared- with Afro Arab characteristics as a result of marriages between the two communities. This situation continued until the end of the Middle Ages when the Portuguese occupied these areas and then followed by the Germans, the Italians and the French. After that Arabic started to dwindle though still spoken in many of these areas. In conclusion, the Arabs were the main reason for the spread of Arabic during that period and until the end of the Middle Ages. However, after the Colonizers occupied these areas Arabic started to dwindle......

The Diacritics Signs Have no Effect on Meaning



Pages: 154 - 176


It seems that the press and mass media are heading to abrogate the diacritics assuming that these signs have no effect on meaning. I knew through my studies and teaching of Arabic that we are threatened by a new wave of solecism which no less dangerous than that wave which existed before the beginning of Arabic grammar. As a result, this new wave must be confronted by showing the significance of diacritics on meanings. Dr. Ibrahim Aniss book From language secrets was another reason that urged me to write on the effect of diacritics on meanings. since he claims that the diacritic has no significance. Therefore, I figured out that the trend to delete the diacritics has found its support. Dr. Anis mentioned many arguments to cancel the diacritics, referring to the dropping of diacritics mentioned by Abu Amru in his readings and the saying of Al-Khalil Bin Ahmad that diacritics are supplementary. This research follows an opposite direction, diacritics regarding as of significance It introduces many examples showing the effect of diacritics on meanings and refutes in linguistic proofs these obscurities advocated will remain by Dr. Anis. Diacritic will be forever a part of the Arabic structure, their performance will remain an integral part of our lively eloquent language.....

The Causation Refusal is Considered by both Ways Transference and Rational Manners. Study in Osul Al-Feqeh



Pages: 177 - 223


The rule of The Causation refusal is considered highly in the legislation, as it was considered by both ways of the Transference and rational manners while laying the foundation of its fundamentals, the actualization was disputed, this rule was agreed by all Jurists no matter to the construction, but to the meaning. However, it is that much penetrating to the body of the legislation in its two Kinds, So, it is worth of one fourth of the total duties, forbidding of exaggeration is stated. Except in some exceptional cases To be taken Under consideration, it is better for precaution enforcement, which became in according with the wisdom of the above said rule. In such civilization which is questioning its followers’ about a Simple glance or about a simple foot - Keck, and consider as a reason for an excitement not only this, but even for a case of Looking to plait of hair so it may lead to complete imagination of the whole hair. Allah said it is more blessed for you and purer, 2/232 and said That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. 3/53 . That is why we feel that there is large place in between such a civilization and the other one, which allow for an exaggeration in accepting the Case of Reissuing which may lead Certainly to Kinds of Stimulation and fascinations......

A Study on the Works of Sheikh Abdullah El-Herary



Pages: 224 - 259


A religious group named Al-Ahbash has recently been found by Sheikh Abdullah- El-Herary, who has expressed unorthodox views that have led to sharp disagreements between him and his critics. This paper discusses is a study on the works of Sheikh Abdullah El- Herary. It deals with his ideological positions and their underpinnings. To get to the truth about his views and to determine how they relate to those of other groups, the writer has examined El-Herary’s works in a scientific and objective manner......

The Creation of the World from the Point of Veiw of Abul-Hatheel Al-Allaaf



Pages: 260 - 302


Abul-Hatheel Al-Allaaf is regarded as one of the founders of E tizali thought and its five bases. This research deals with an issue that busied the Greek and Arab philosophers; then it was treated by those who were called Scientists of Speech particularly The Motazila who found that The Holy Quran contained additional verses and many hints about the creation of the World. In this research I have introduced definitions of some philosophical terms such as Creation, Substance, Essence and others from the point of view of Al-Allaaf himself. I have explained the original source of the theory of the Single Essence and discussed the different concepts of the scientists who believe that the source of the theory was Greek, Indian or Bhudist. I explained their ideas and rejected them showing my own opinion to explain the difference between the theory of Epicure and that of Al-Allaaf. Then I introduced a detailed criticism of the theory, particularly that part related to Al-Nazzam and Ibn Hazm. Moreover, I have dealt with the concepts of the scientists who praised the theory and noticed that it contained great effort for putting an Islamic theory to explain the Creation of the World. - I have explained the proofs that Al-Allaaf gave to explain the Creation of the World and the most important of these proofs is that of the Single Essence, which he adopted. It also talked about the differentiation between the Immortal, ALLAH and the Created, the World......

The Image of the American Woman In William Carlos Williams Patreson



Pages: 1 - 26


This paper seeks to demonstrate that William Carlos Williamss career as a medical doctor has aroused in him a deep concern and sympathy for the women of his society. The paper also aims at defining the maladies that proved detrimental to American women, such maladies that incite Williams to adopt an unprecedented pro-feminist position. In his Paterson, he pathetically reflects the American womans wretched position in a capitalistic society. Here Williams finds her inarticulate and marginal, suffering social and sexual inhibition, and above all financially impoverished, all of which contribute to her spiritual and emotional barrenness and physical sterility. He makes it clear that age-old misogynism still persists even today. The American woman, as the granddaughter of Puritanism, is made to fear her body? Williamss sympathetic concern for woman, however, goes far beyond his recognition of her suffering and even beyond his affectionate care and material help. He realizes that her voice should finally be heard and be made articulate, hence his poem dedicated to her. He attempts to raise her to the status of an epic hero in Paterson. By incorporating an idyll of two lesbians in his poem, Williams endeavors to assert that the lesbian has a perfect right to exist. And by making the virgin and the prostitute an identity, Williams strives to eliminate the social differences among women themselves. But most important to Williams is his attempt to blow up the blockage separating men and women, and he can do so by declaring that men possess feminine qualities in them, therefore, men and women are complementary.....

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