Published by:
Deanship of Scientific Research
Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

ISSN (Print Version): 1684-0615

ISSN (Online Version): 2616-2814





Volume 10, Issue No 2, 2004


The effect of Token Reinforcement for the Competing Sub-Groups in reducing The Unaware Behavior During Classes ’ for a 3rd Primary Class Sample



Pages: 11 - 46


This study aims at identifying the effect of Token Reinforcement for the competing sub-groups in reducing the unaware behavior during classes ’ for a 3rd primary class sample. For this reason, a (73), sample divided into two classes was chosen. Baseline of the Distraction for each group was I measured by observers. They observe every unaware behavior done by e every student in the class. After training the observers and taking the measures with the principal and the class teacher. A pre-test was conducted on two consecutive days in ‘8 contact hours, showed a balance between the two groups in terms of the number of unaware behavior for each group. The treatment was applied on one group while the other was a control group through the division of the experimental group into three sub- groups. Moreover, the students were briefed of the Token Reinforcement that will followed the set of conditions of the good behavior and the re- wards for each group The application lasted two academic weeks. After that, the Post-Test was conducted for the control and experimental groups for two days by using the steps of the Pre-Test, statistical analysis showed significant differences in favor of the experimental group which can be attributed to the Token Reinforcement. Regarding the differences between the two sexes in the effect of the Token Reinforcement, results showed by using (T) that there are no indicative, differences, that may be attributed to the gender factor......

A plea of No of Jurisdiction in Criminal Matters



Pages: 47 - 97


Strict Adherence to the rules at judicial Jurisdiction in criminal matters occupies an important status in the procedural field . Breach of such rules, may invoke a plea of no jurisdiction in criminal matters . in view of the lack of an independent theory for a plea of no jurisdiction in criminal matters in criminal procedure law , we have attempted to deduce these rules from exiting laws , comparative legislation and (judicial and figh ) . We have also attempted to expose Legislative loopholes and diagnose practical problems to arrive at the proper legislative amendments and Overcome practical problem......

Said Bin Jubeir Recored in Interpretation (Tafseer) Acritical Prophetic Tradition



Pages: 99 - 122


Said Bin Jubeir s Abstract ( D.94H ) record was one of the first records which collected ‘interpretations narrations in the second half of the first Hijri century, quoted by Ibn Abi Hatem Al- Razi ( D. 327 H) in his interpretation ( Glorious Quran Attributed by the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, his companions and partisans ). This source was one of the different well-known mother books of interpretation which ‘reserved, the narrations of this record, and from this sole source the distinguished interpreters took their narrations. This research was considered an attempt to induce and follow methods and-sources of this interpretation to evaluate this record and the condition of men of source on the part of Prophetic Tradition (Hadith), and criticism of narrations......

New Reading to Al-Ghazali’s Skepticism Crisis



Pages: 123 - 155


Al-Gazali explained how he had suffered a sense of skepticism, for more than two months and how God had finally enlightened his heart and led him to attain the truth in sophism. The philosophy he intensively examined especially at the time of his six-month illness . This study is designed to-shred light uponA1-Gazali‘s spiritual journey as illustrated in his book AL-Munjid min AL-Dalal, reconsidering first the controversial views and Comments forwarded by scholars related to the influence of his illness and his drive, for sophism and attempting then to introduce new explanation to his spiritual crisis......

The Potential Implications of Euro on Developing Economies With A Particular Reference To Jordan: An Exploratory Study



Pages: 9 - 29


It is expected that Euro will have considerable opportunities and risks at the international, regional and national levels. Euro may eliminate the foreign exchange risk, reduce the requirement for international reserves and the need or hedging, and may eliminate the cost of the currency transfer due to currency unification. The Euro has the potential of being a major international currency that would compete with the Dollar as a reserve. In Jordan, it is expected that the demand on Euro will increase, more commercial and service ties with the EU will be strengthened at lower cost than other currency regions due to low inflation in the Euro Zone. Jordan’s export will improve with the liberalization of imports from Europe. On the microeconomic level, the elimination of exchange rate uncertainty and transaction costs within the EU will create efficiency gains in the transactions of the Jordanian firms with the EU. On the macroeconomic level, the elimination of intra -EU exchange rates and the discipline in monetary and fiscal policies will lower the risk built in interest rates and lead to higher investment and output both in the EU and Jordan. The EU demand for imports from non-EU countries such as Jordan will be boosted but this depends on the share of the EU in other countrys exports. The introduction of the Euro and the creation of a single EU market have led to external liberalization towards non-EU countries and the market access has been made easier which will benefit the Jordanian exports. It is expected for a country like Jordan to use more Euro in its foreign trade as Euro is relatively a stable currency with low inflation. Given that the EU will be the largest single trade block in the world, some Arab countries with close economic ties with the EU wish to link their currencies to the Euro through some sort of exchange rate peg. but this might not happen to Jordan which has strong political and economic ties with the US, but in the long-run there is a possibility that Jordan will tie the Dinar with a basket of currencies where Euro plays a major role. Concerning the Euro equity and bond markets, these markets will constitute a diversification of investment opportunities for the Jordanian investors as the Euro government securities market will be larger than that of Japan and the US......

Reinterpreting The Black Book: A Postcolonial Approach



Pages: 31 - 49


Since its first publication in 1938, Lawrence Durrells The Black Bock had attracted much criticism that tended to focus on its form, style. and significance in anticipating Durrell’s later mega novel The Alexandria Quartet (1962). A linguistically rich and thematically layered novel, The Black Book continues to offer the critic many avenues of investigation, including its political and historiographic implications as they are played out in an implicit critique of colonialism, which is basically related to the aesthetics of the novel. This study intends to reinterpret Durrell’s The Black Book as a critique of colonialism. Reading Durrell‘s work from a post-colonial perspective shows how Durrell writes of the interconnections of the privet and the public, and the political, the personal and the political the aesthetic and the historiographic in The Black Book, which is at once an act of revelation and resistance, a wake-up to and for personal, artistic, and political freedom......

A Boltzmann Machine For Solving Time Tabling Problem



Pages: 51 - 79


A neural network approach for solving the time tabling problem is presented. A Boltzmann machine neural network based system is developed for finding optimal faculty schedule. The system first formulate the problem of time tabling in a graph form and the optimal scheduling problem is considered as a graph coloring problem. Several educational systems schedules are considered......

Arabic Metonymy and Its Translation into English



Pages: 81 - 107


The present paper deals with the Arabic metonymy and the possibility of rendering this trope into English. At the outset of this work, the researcher attempts to present some introductory remarks related to the subject in question such as the approaches which are adopted by Arab and non-Arab linguists and rhetoricians to define the conception of metonymy. It also tackles the rhetorical and non-rhetorical considerations used in the interpretation of Arabic metonymy. An attempt is also made to study and analyze a number of Quranic, Prophetical and poetic metonymical texts where this process has revealed some very subtle rhetorical features which are considered to be stylistically (aesthetically) and semantically powerful. This work touches upon other related issues such as the classification of the metonymical expressions in Arabic rhetoric and their various functions in Arabic texts. Perfectly grasping these issues can very much help in the process of rendering Arabic metonymies into English. Finally, some important conclusions have been arrived at which can provide the interested reader with further insights into the subject of metonymy......

True Colored Image Quantization



Pages: 109 - 119


The problem of dealing with true colored images and palette driven images with colors that exceed the displaying capabilities of standard VGA monitors is considered. The paper is concerned with developing a quantization algorithm for properly displaying true colored images in a palette driven form with limited number of colors as per the capabilities of the displaying device. The algorithm is very useful in reducing the image file size for storing or transmission without much degradation in image quality. Results are reported and discussed......

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