Published by:
Deanship of Scientific Research
Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan

ISSN (Print Version): 1684-0615

ISSN (Online Version): 2616-2814

Volume 9, Issue No 2, 2002

The History of Islamic Architecture: continuity Versus Chronological Categorization

Pages: 11 - 32

The history of Islamic architecture is divided into categories (periods) according to chronological order, where each category is named after a certain dynasty and where all buildings built in this period are named after that dynasty. But to attribute such buildings as products of that specific period may prove inadequate for deep understanding of a complex matter such as that of Islamic architecture. The focus of this paper is on the relevance of studying the history of Islamic architecture according to the well established chronological categorization of this architecture. The paper examines some of the key issues strongly related to the development of Islamic architecture and highlights some of the shortcomings of this system and influence on our perception and understanding of Islamic architecture......

New Light on Al-Kandi’s Life

Pages: 33 - 61

This study aims at shedding light on the life of the philosopher Yacoub bn Ishaq Al-Kindi without concerning itself with his thought and philosophy. It is well known that al-kindi’s life has been the focus of many modern Arab and orientalist scholars such as De Bore, Brokelman, and Mustafa Abd Al-Razeq and others. Those scholars offered an account of his life based on biographies. The problem that faced everyone was the scarcity of information on al-kindi’s life, thus it has not been possible to present an accurate account of it. This prompted many scholars to degrade the philosophical importance of al-Kindi due to lack of information about many details of his life compared with other philosophers. We would not have attempted to examine al-kindi’s life and we didn‘t locat new texts that fill some of the gaps in al-kindi’s life. This has meant a fresh account of life that includes the date and place of his birth and death, his work in Baghdad and his intellectual and political circle......

Fables in Old Iraqi Literature

Pages: 63 - 92

Fables are as old as man himself. He used them early as a means of expression when nature puzzled him beyond human perception. As a reaction to his perplexity, he proposed lots of interpretations that were mostly imaginary and Sheerly illogical. Fables, therefore, came to represent such interpretations, means for understanding the world of nature and deciphering its elements. Ever since, Fables proved the most ancient modes of narrative literature in comparison to Myths and Epics. Fables, which took for granted the animal character as a ruling persona, were the privilege of no individual nation. Nevertheless, some scholars attributed them to Indian and Greek civilization and sometimes to the ancient Egypt. Such a view is undoubtedly ignoring the ancient Iraqi civilization in this domain. Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian Ages passed down a great number of Fables that echoed loudly in the literatures of later world civilizations. This is quite noticeable in comparing old Iraqi Fables with their Greek equivalents. The Greek and non-Greek “Isup is a good example for such a shared experience of the same artistic phase. The present study is to shed light upon the art of Fable through its early appearance in “Guilgamesh” up to its maturity in “Ihegar Wisdom. The study also attempts to classify Fables and their moral, educational, and political functions......

The Change of Stability : The Stable and Variable in Adonis Modernization and literary Text

Pages: 93 - 132

Adonis occupied himself fatefully with the idea of Legacy and modernity In his book, The Stable and Variable. He tried through a historical Telescope to distinguish between tradition and creation in our Arabic heritage He intended to trace down the obsession of modernity, its rebounds and creation through that heritage. Adonis selected from legacy what is corresponding with his beliefs and his theory about . Stable and Variable“ .He ascribed the stability and tradition to whom is Arab in origin and creation not to Arabic roots, but to what is religious or sectarian minority, to violate the holiness of legacy and to understand the negative aspects in our Arabic history......

The Condition of the State Responsibility for the International Wrongful Acts.

Pages: 133 - 163

The present study has found out that the international Law committee. with respect to the codification of the rules governing state responsibility, has been and still is looking upon the conditions of this responsibility in terms of the traditional legal opinions without concentrating on the international conduct trends which seem to have overlooked the legal opinions With exception to some modest attempts to establish responsibility on the objective bases , the state responsibility depends on traditional rues which precondition illegitimacy in the state act would affect any material or moral rights of another state , but at the same time necessitating to attribute that act to the state in question. It seems that the committees ambivalence on confirming the existing rules (declarative codification) and on creating new rules (constructive codification) for state responsibility is associated with: l. The development of understanding the description of (illegitimacy) of any international act based on the rules of international law . 2. The acceptability of the motion that the illegitimacy of any act necessarily means that the damage occurs by merely committing that act . 3. Specifying the basic elements involved in estimating the process of (attributing) the illegitimate act to the state . Finally , all the above (factors) depend on the circumstances which surround the international awareness of the compatibility between the general , humanitarian (interest) Of the international community and the national (needs) as perceived by each state, but even readiness to put the general interests before national needs and to sacrifice the latter if so required......

The Case Assignment And V-movement In Verbal Sentence in Arabic Syntax: A Minimalist Approach

Pages: 9 - 33

This paper discusses the concept of government and case-system pro- posed by Traditional Arab Grammarians, (see Haque (1984), Wright (1984) and Abdulhamid (1980)). They, basically, regarded the system of oven morphological realizations and the transitivity theory but not government as primary factors for it to assign the case of an NP. As- their approach is unable to account for the assignment of the nominative case without a governor, we opt for case - theory of Chomsky (1995) to solve this and other problems. X-bar syntax as a module of case theory guarantees the assignment of case to a DP in the presence of a case - assignor. The DP must be governed by specific case - assignor in its maximal projection. This theory introduces the principle of Exceptional Case Marking as a mechanism that guarantees the assignment of the accusative case by the matrix verb to the subject of IP under government. In this process. we depend on the Spec-head relation to achieve this kind of assignment in X- bar syntax......

Pedagogy of Dislocation: An Educational Issue at the Dawn of the Third Millennium

Pages: 35 - 59

This descriptive research tries to probe the impact of the emerging information technologies on reshaping both face—to-face and distant education. At a time when the technologies underlying all forms of schooling are rapidly changing, the sketching of the emerging opportunities initiates a dialogue about the pedagogy of dislocation that will undoubtedly prevail in the impending Human Age. Interactive multimedia systems are said to hold the promise of revolutionizing education. In the future, it will be possible for people to learn anything. anytime, and anywhere by using notebook-sized computers, pen-based interfaces. wireless networking, and relevant software, teachers can conduct field-based experiences in which students are physically distributed across an environment. yet linked together by shared data, and pedagogical guidance. Educators will be able to create classrooms with electronic walls that are useful in certain types of training, and that demonstrate the distributed learning approach. The cyber-school system, which adapts the approach of the pedagogy of dislocation. can prepare students to cope with the prevailing environment of the Age of Information. The research, which forms an integral part of educational psychology, concludes that the different variants of current educational practices in schools and universities. including credit for contact, credit for computers and credit for contact plus computers should be reexamined to probe their effectiveness in the impending Human Age......

A Modified Technique for Reducing the Micro instructions of Synchronous Digital Systems

Pages: 35 - 59

Micro-Programmed Logic Devices have been studied in several Approaches. Several types of addressing have been used as Compulsory, combined and natural addressing. In this paper, a modified technique to synthesize the Algorithm is utilized State Machines (ASM) for synchronous digital systems using combined addressing is presented, based on dividing the Microinstruction into subsets, which results in minimizing the number of microinstructions and decreases the throughout time of the automation......

Effects of Oily Vehicles on the Bio-availability of Orally Administered, Sodium Salicylates in Rabbit.

Pages: 73 - 85

The bioavailability of sodium salicylate administered in aqueous, glycerin and oily vehicles was compared in rabbits. Glycerin formulation was compared with both aqueous and oily formulations using a two - way crossover test in eight rabbits, in each study. The results indicate that the oily formulation gave a lower rate of absorption and a greater extent of absorption than the other formulations. No significant difference in the rate and extent of absorption was shown between glycerin and aqueous formulations Possible reasons for the differences are discussed with particular reference to the effects of oils on the gastric emptying rate......

Evaluating the Effective Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy.

Pages: 87 - 93

This study demonstrates that throughout one year 2370 of acute diarrheal dehydration were referred to oral re-hydration therapy (ORT). Out of which 89 were treated and discharged in a good condition, while 11 were referred to the wards for intravenous fluid therapy. Most of these patients (75) were under one year old, while the rest (25) were 1-5 years of age. The sex incidence demonstrated that 54.3 were male patients, while 45.7 were female patients. We conclude that ORT is simple, effective, and inexpensive method for treating diarrheal dehydration. Furthermore, it frees hospital ward-staff for other duties, which eventually will improve the management of other diseases......

Pharmacological Effects of Extracts from Mentha Iongifolia L. Huds

Pages: 95 - 104

The pharmacological effects of volatile oil fraction, butanol and the residual water extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds, family Lamiaceae) on intestinal smooth muscle were studied in vitro. Volatile oil fraction (40- 100 ug/ml) exhibited an inhibitory effect on the acctyl choline-induced contraction of the rabbit ileum. This action was transient and reversible after washing the tissue. In addition, volatile oil fraction (40-100 ug/ml) inhibited the histamine-induced contraction of the ileum in guinea pig. Butanolic extract (100 ug/ml) exhibited weaker inhibitory effect on both acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions on‘ rabbit and guinea pig ileums. Residual water extract (40-200 ug/ml) showed no effect. However, further investigations are still recommended.....

A Genetic Algorithm Approach, For Solving Flow Shop Problem

Pages: 105 - 116

A new approach for solving flow shop problem is presented. The developed and implemented system -based on genetic algorithm- formulates the flow shop problem as u traveling salesman problem rind solves the machine—job scheduling problem accordingly. Special selection, crossover, and mutation operators are used within the genetic system. Results showed fast convergence toward optimal scheduler.....

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